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All Heart: The Evolution of Caridiology
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            I am sometimes asked why Emory cardiology is consistently ranked in the top ten of the nation’s best heart centers. Here is the story. Note that the story, involving patient care, excellent teaching, and ground-breaking clinical and basic research, wouldn’t exist without the contributions of Emory faculty members in many departments, including medicine, pediatrics, surgery, radiology, anesthesiology, pharmacology, as well as the nursing staff. Likewise, the story unfolds in many settings: Emory University Hospital, Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Emory Crawford Long Hospital, Egleston Children’s Hospital, The Emory Clinic, dozens of satellite locations, and several research buildings. Since the beginning of cardiology at Emory, our faculty have shared what they know not only between departments but also with colleagues at other universities worldwide, creating unusual collaborations where one usually finds competition.


       We are all standing on the shoulders of those who came before. In the early years when cardiology was being birthed at Emory, several cardiologists started our story off right. If we hearken back to 1915, when Emory University took over the Atlanta Medical College, Jean Backman served as the first chairman of physiology. He discovered Bachman’s bundle in the atria of the heart. In the late 1920s, Carter Smith Sr., a volunteer faculty member, introduced electrocardiography to Grady Hospital. Stuart Roberts, known as the ‘Osler of the South,’ worked at Emory Hospital and later served as president of the American Heart Association.
        In those early decades, Dan Elkin, who became chairman of Emory’s Department of Surgery, began his nationally known work with patients with traumatic arteriovenous fistula. He continued this work in the US Army during World War II, and after the war, he and Fred Cooper achieved national prominence for their work in peripheral vascular disease.
        In 1942, Eugene Stead Jr. became Emory’s first full-time professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine. Although he began as the sole cardiologist at Grady Hospital, Jim Warren, John Hickson, Jack Myers, Paul Beeson, and others soon joined him. Stead and Warren created the famous cardiac catheterization laboratory at Grady, one of only four such laboratories in the world at that time. Supported by the army, the doctors studied circulatory shock in the laboratory and later turned to studies in the altered physiology of heart failure. Heinz Weens, chairman of the Department of Radiology, aided the creative research effort. In 1945, the research of Warren, Weens, and Emmet Brannon led to the first use of cardiac catheterization for diagnostic purposes. The patient had an atrial septal defect.
        Stead and his co-workers catapulted a struggling department of medicine into national and international prominence. When Stead accepted the chairmanship of medicine at Duke in 1946, he handed the reins to Paul Beeson. Beeson, in addition to chairing the Department of Medicine at Emory, continued his research, making many original observations on patients with infective bacterial endocarditis.

GROWING: 1940s AND 1950s

        The recruitment of R. Bruce Logue to Emory in 1946 marks an important chapter in our history of cardiology. A man of vision, a superb clinician, a charismatic teacher, and an excellent writer, Logue had the right combination of abilities to develop a comprehensive cardiology center here. He developed the Private Diagnostic Clinic located in Emory Hospital and the forerunner of the Emory Clinic and taught cardiology at Emory and Grady hospitals and the Atlanta VAMC. Much loved by all who knew him, Logue deserves the credit for the development of cardiology at Emory. Also the founding father of the Georgia affiliate of the American Heart Association, he recruited key people to Emory.
        Robert Grant was one of those people and a creative genius. He joined the faculty at Grady in 1947 and developed a method of analyzing electrocardiograms by using basic principles and vector concepts.
        I was another of those recruits, coming to Emory in 1950. My job was to teach house staff and fellows at Emory and Grady hospitals, to help build a consulting referral practice, to engage in clinical research, and to write. Because pediatric cardiology was not yet a discipline, both Logue and I additionally served as pediatric cardiologists.
        During my first years here, I encouraged collaborations between cardiology and cardiac surgery. In 1951, for example, I urged our surgeons to operate on one of my patients who had severe mitral valve stenosis. They did so. It was probably the first operation of that type to be performed in the South and set a precedent for future collaboration between cardiologists and cardiac surgeons at Emory. I also worked with a cardiac fellow to develop a new standardized type of digitalis to be used in children, a preparation, in fact, that is still used today.
        With the support and guidance of Robert Grant, I published my first book on electrocardiography in 1952. Along with Logue, I edited the cardiovascular sections of Meakins textbooks of medicine.
        Meanwhile, our ranks were growing. Eugene Ferris, chairman of the Department of Medicine at Emory, recruited Nobel Fowler to direct the Stead-Warren cardiovascular laboratory, located in the Steiner building on the Grady campus. Ed Dorney, a superb clinician and teacher, joined Emory cardiology in 1954.
        Keeping pace with the expanding faculty was a growing enterprise. The Emory Clinic, in which both Logue and I were founding members, was formed in 1953 by the merger of the Private Diagnostic Clinic and several other units in Emory Hospital. This development was of utmost importance because it created a superb method for growth and financial support.


        I was drafted for the second time in 1954 and assigned to the cardiology service of the US Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. While there, I attended cardiology conferences at the National Heart Institute, located across the street, and made contacts with many of the future leaders in cardiology. Near the end of my tour of duty in 1955, I became chief of cardiology. In that role, I attended the Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson when he experienced his first heart attack. Johnson convalesced at his ranch in Texas in the early fall of 1955, and he was admitted to Emory Hospital for examination before returning to the Senate. We became friends, and I served as his cardiologist for the next 18 years. This long relationship introduced the public at large to Emory cardiology.
        Meanwhile, in 1955 upon my return to Emory, I discovered an alarming situation. The chairmen of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics were embroiled in a heated disagreement with Dean Arthur Richardson ultimately leading to their release. In the early fall of 1956, at the request of the dean, I agreed to become chairman of the Department of Medicine. I was 35 years old.
        My work began on February 1, 1957, a year in which the story of Emory cardiology had progressed to include three cardiologists at Emory Hospital and one at Grady Hospital. No research space and no hard-core budget for the Department of Medicine yet existed. The National Heart Institute gave a $25,000 annual stipend to every medical school in the nation for the teaching of cardiology. But we obviously needed more than that to support our programs. We needed many more talented people, research space, and a budget.
        One of the talented people who joined us in 1957 was Sam Poole. He organized and taught physical diagnosis to sophomore medical students. Garland Perdue was another. He became director of the division of vascular surgery in 1957 and served in that capacity until 1984.
        In 1958, I recruited Robert Schlant to direct the Stead-Warren cardiac catheterization laboratory. Destined to become a world-class master cardiologist, Schlant was appointed as director of the Division of Cardiology in 1962, a capacity in which he served until 1986, and as a part of his responsibilities, he expanded the cardiology fellowship training program. He also served as chairman of the American Heart Associationís Council of Cardiology.
        An important financial commitment by the Robert W. Woodruff Foundation allowed us to build new cardiac laboratories within the new Grady Hospital, completed in 1958. Gordon Barrow was the first director of the cardiac clinic at Grady, followed by Freeman Cary, both of whom were volunteer faculty members. In 1960, Nanette Wenger, who had just completed her cardiac fellowship with us, became the clinicís director. A polished speaker and writer, she was a true pioneer, being one of the first women to enter the cardiology field.
        In another development, the Crippled Children's Service of Georgia donated funds to build a cardiac catheterization laboratory in the relatively new Woodruff Research Building, which was attached to Emory Hospital and became the first cardiac catheterization laboratory located in a private hospital in Atlanta. Robert Franch, who was finishing his fellowship at Grady, came to direct this laboratory.
        Others also flocked to our ranks in the 1950s and 1960s. Woofin Cobbs Jr. joined the staff at Emory Hospital and the Emory Clinic in 1958, bringing creative research in phonocardiolography. In 1962, Williams Rawles came to the cardiology staff at Grady and contributed to the further development of the Stead-Warren laboratory. William Logan joined the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery in the early 1960s, and Robert Smith joined surgeryís Division of Vascular Disease in 1966. Charles Gilbert joined the Grady staff in 1967 and developed stress testing. Paul Robinson, a superb clinician and teacher, joined the staff at Emory Hospital and the Emory Clinic in 1967. Don Nutter, an excellent teacher/researcher and one of our former fellows, became part of the Emory faculty at Grady in 1968. He later directed the Stead-Warren cardiovascular laboratory. Alan Paulk came to Grady in 1968 and helped develop the coronary care unit there. Joel Felner, an American Heart Association teaching scholar, joined the Grady staff in 1969. He helped develop the software for the cardiac manikin used to teach the examination of the heart, and later he developed echocardiography at Grady, where he continues to receive awards for his teaching.
        We were experiencing growth at the Atlanta VAMC, too. The first full-time Emory faculty member in cardiology at the Atlanta VAMC was Joe Lindsey, appointed in 1966. An excellent teacher and clinical researcher, he became a national authority in dissection of the aorta. Sylvia Crawley joined the staff at the Veterans Hospital in 1967 and became chief of cardiology in 1970.
       The development of Crawford Long Hospital became Emoryís responsibility in 1963. Linton Bishop, a devoted volunteer faculty member, was the moving force in the development of cardiology at Crawford Long Hospital.
        Cardiology at Emory was boosted considerably during the sixties for several reasons. Each year, Emory offered the only postgraduate courses in cardiology in the Southeast. We invited national and internationally known experts to help present the courses. Hundreds of practicing physicians attended the courses, and Emory became recognized around the world as a major teaching center for cardiology. We organized the first postgraduate course in cardiology for the American Heart Association in 1963, followed a year later with the first postgraduate course in cardiology for nurses. The internationally known speakers and the participants of the courses learned what was happening at Emory, and I am pleased to say, they liked what they saw.
        I created the textbook, The Heart, with Logue in the early sixties. The book brought further acclaim to our cardiology efforts. It was becoming clear that textbooks in cardiology needed redoing. When single individuals were writing them, they took too long to finish. The first chapter would be out of date by the time the last chapter was done. So I came up with the notion of a multi-authored book. With significant contributions from Robert Schlant, Nanette Wenger, and others, the first edition of The Heart was published in 1966. Subsequently, a new edition was created every four years. With its translation into six languages and ten editions later, it has brought international recognition to Emory cardiology. After the 7th edition, I passed the editor-in-chief responsibilities to Schlant and Wayne Alexander, the current chairman of the Department of Medicine, at which time the publishers renamed the book Hurst's The Heart. Although there are many books on cardiology today, the Emory book continues to be popular and used worldwide.
        Several other pioneering developments accompanied the decade of the sixties. Emory physicians at Grady were the first in Atlanta to use cardiac defibrillation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and to use a cardiac pacemaker. Schlant performed the first coronary arteriogram in Atlanta in the Grady cardiac laboratory. Franch, working in the cardiac catheterization laboratory on the Emory campus, performed the first atrial septotomy in the South in 1967.
        Two additional divisions to the department of medicine brought faculty members with cardiovascular orientations to Emory. Leon Goldberg, for example, who became director of clinical pharmacology, quickly catapulted his division of experts in cardiovascular drugs to national recognition. A division of clinical physiology was added to the Department of Medicine to emphasize the use of basic science principles in the clinical training of students and house officers. Sheldon Skinner, an excellent cardiology researcher, was director of the division. Gerhart Brecher, the former chairman of the Department of Physiology, also worked in the cardiology division for a short while.
        Catherine Edwards was appointed director of pediatric cardiology in 1960. She was given free access to the cardiac catheterization laboratory in the Woodruff Research Building on campus. When Edwards later entered the field of pediatric radiology, Dorothy Brinsfield became director of the division of pediatric cardiology. These two pediatric cardiologists laid the groundwork for what was to become a nationally known pediatric heart center at Egleston.
        My participation in several national cardiology organizations boosted Emoryís visibility. In 1965, I became a member of the Cardiology Subspecialty Board and served as its chairman from 1967 to 1970. Grady Hospital became even more famous because the national examination in cardiology was often given there. In 1967, I became a member of the advisory council of the National Heart Institute. As a member of the counciI, I recommended funding for the development of clinical training programs in cardiology throughout the country. As a result, Emory was awarded a large grant to train cardiology fellows. This granting process by the National Heart Institute is the reason for the dramatic increase in the number of cardiologists in the country.
        The arrival of Charles Hatcher to the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery during the early sixties adds another chapter to our story. By 1971, Hatcher was director of the division, and his leadership was a major force in the development of cardiac surgery at Emory. Emory cardiac surgeons became leaders in coronary bypass surgery, with patients being referred from other states and other countries. Hatcher continued as division director until 1995, also serving as director of the Emory Clinic from 1976-1984 and leading the Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center from 1984-1996.
        Rounding out the recruitments of the 1960s, Gerald Fletcher joined the faculty of the Department of Medicine in 1969. He created a superb nationally recognized cardiovascular rehabilitation program in the physical educational building on the Emory campus. Onward and upward: roll call of the 1970s
        During the 1970s, Emory's cardiology group grew in leaps and bounds. While many of those who joined us for a time eventually went on to private practice or to academic positions at other institutions, Don Arensberg, an excellent teacher appointed in 1977, remained at Grady until his death in the 1990s. William Plauth became director of pediatric cardiology in 1971. Under his leadership the first cardiac catheterization laboratory was developed at Egleston in 1975. He appointed several excellent cardiac pediatricians, including Beth Nugent, and he laid the groundwork for the future development of pediatric cardiology. For many years, we rotated the cardiac fellows in the Department of Medicine through pediatric cardiology.
        Under Hatcher's leadership, an excellent team of cardiac surgeons assembled at Emory, including Ellis Jones in 1972, Joe Craver in 1974, and Kamal Mansour in 1978. In 1974, Peter Symbas developed the cardiac surgery program at Grady Hospital, and later he did the same at the VAMC. Meanwhile, Willis Williams was developing the cardiac surgery program at Egleston. At this point in time, the surgical team could perform any cardiac surgery needed in both adults and children at five hospitals. The cardiac surgeons quickly became leaders in coronary bypass surgery, and patients from distant states and abroad were referred to Emory University Hospital for cardiac care.
        I became president of the American Heart Association in 1972. The same year, Spencer King, one of our former trainees, returned to Atlanta from Denver to further develop the cardiovascular laboratories in Emory Hospital and to develop coronary arteriography. He designed four cardiac laboratories in the new addition to Emory University Hospital in 1974.
        Steven D. Clements, another Emory trainee, joined the cardiology group at Emory Hospital and the Emory Clinic in 1973. A superb clinician teacher, Clements worked with Sonya Chang to develop echocardiography at Emory Hospital. I appointed Chang to the cardiology faculty because of her work as chief technician with Harvey Fugenbaum, the leading echocardiographer of the nation.
        And still others brought their talents to Emory cardiology. John Douglas, an Emory trainee who became internationally known for his work in angioplasty, joined King at Emory Hospital and the clinic in 1974. Jerry Lutz, skilled in the management of patients who had cardiac transplants, originally came to the Grady Hospital staff and eventually joined the cardiology staff at Emory Hospital. John Stone, an excellent cardiologist and Emory's unofficial 'poet laureate,' attended his private patients in the Emory Clinic and Emory Hospital.
        Michael Gravanis became chairman of the Department of Pathology in 1970. As a cardiac pathologist he contributed significantly to the teaching and research program. Cardiac pathology also was highlighted by the annual two-month visit of Reginald Huston, the internationally known cardiac pathologist at the National Heart Hospital in London.
        In 1970, at the request of several devoted Emory volunteer faculty members at Piedmont Hospital, I selected Mark Silverman to head medical education there. Silverman, an excellent cardiologist, teacher, clinician, writer, and organizer, performed beautifully in that role. In addition to being a valuable faculty member, he developed a reputation as one of the nationís best cardiac historians.
        Several construction projects propelled cardiology at Emory onward, upward, and literally outward. For example, we added a new wing and connector to Emory University Hospital in the early 1970s, which provided space for medical cardiology and cardiac surgery to be located on the same floor of the hospital. I had the chance to design the coronary Intensive Care Unit on 4G in Emory Hospital. The hallway and waiting room wrapped around the unit so family members could enter the patients room without going inside the unit. The design was so successful, it was published and copied by other institutions.
        We created a cardiac catheterization laboratory at Crawford Long Hospital through the generosity of the Carlyle Fraser family in 1976. Arthur Merrill Jr. came to direct the laboratory in 1976, and Douglas Morris joined the staff there in 1977. The next year, John Hurst joined the group, followed by Henry Leberman in 1979. Byron Williams, one of our cardiology fellows who spent six months of study in nuclear cardiology at Yale, was another addition to the Crawford Long group in 1979. He created cardiac nuclear service at Crawford Long Hospital.
Because of the generosity of the Fraser family, the Carlyle Fraser Heart Center at Crawford Long Hospital was created in 1976. Wadley Glen served as the first director of the new center.
        In 1976, Dallas Hall and other members of the renal division, developed a stellar program in hypertension at Grady Hospital. An excellent organizer, clinician, and investigator, he became director of the new Division of Hypertension and contributed significantly to the literature. He also played a major national role in calling attention to the seriousness of this condition.
        Paul Walter, in 1979, moved from the VAMC to Emory Hospital, where he developed cardiac electrophysiology.


        The year 1980 marked a milestone in our history. Bruce Logue retired from his duties at Emory Hospital and the Emory Clinic and became director of the Carlyle Fraser Heart Center at Crawford Long.
The same year brought Andreas Gruentzig to the Emory faculty. Just three years before at a hospital in Zurich, Switzerland, Gruentzig made history by inserting a catheter into a patient's clogged coronary artery and inflating a tiny balloon. The procedure restored blood flow to the heart, and angioplasty was invented. Through his acquaintance with Spencer King, John Douglas, and others at Emory, Gruentzig accepted my invitation to join our team. I originally gave him adequate office space in the connector between 4E and 4G in Emory Hospital. Later I added an entire floor in the connector for his use, one-half of the entire space allotted to the Department of Medicine.
        When Heinz Weens retired, William Caserella took on the chairman role in the Department of Radiology and being greatly interested in Gruentzig's work, Casarella assisted us accommodating Gruentzig's needs. Gruentzig was a genius. While he loved life and lived on 'the edge,' he was a tender, honest, and compassionate advocate for his patients. During his five years at Emory, before he and his wife were killed in a tragic plane accident, he performed more than 2,400 coronary angioplasties, sponsored an annual postgraduate course attended by hundreds, and propelled cardiology at Emory to the top ranks of world medicine.
        We created the Andreas Gruentzig Center of Interventional Cardiology located in Emory Hospital. Spencer King was the center's director, and Steve Clements became the director of the Andreas Gruentzig Outpatient Laboratory located in The Emory Clinic.
        The cardiac surgery program was keeping pace. Robert Guyton joined the cardiac surgical staff in 1980, becoming quickly known as an excellent surgeon and researcher around the nation. Kirk Kanter joined Willis Williams in cardiac surgery at Egleston Hospital. Along with Guyton and Williams, he too rose to national prominence. The first cardiac transplant performed at Emory Hospital came in 1985, followed by the first transplant in children at Egleston in 1988. Quite simply, the transplant service became recognized as one of the best in the country.
Randy Patterson joined the cardiology staff at Crawford Long in 1984. He was a star performer at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and a recognized expert in nuclear cardiology.
        The amount of clinical research at Emory had reached the point that a fulltime statistician was needed to assess the results of the clinical research. William Weintraub joined the cardiology staff at Emory University Hospital and the clinic in 1985 to fulfill this need.


        After serving as chairman of the Department of Medicine for 30 years, I retired from that position in November 1986. I passed the job to Juha Kokko, who appointed Wayne Alexander as director of the Division of Cardiology in 1988. Alexander greatly expanded the cardiology research at Emory. During these years, a large amount of research space became available in the enlarged Woodruff Research Building. A new electrophysiology laboratory opened at Emory Hospital, and the School of Medicine added a training program in cardiac electrophysiology to its offerings. New space also was provided for a heart failure service as well as a congenital heart disease clinic for adults.
        Randy Martin became director of echocardiography at Emory Hospital in 1987. Martin also serves as an excellent television commentator on station WSB.
        Alexander recruited Marshall Runge, Brad Bradford, Russel Medford, Patrick Delafontaine, and David Harrison to further expand the research effort in cardiology. Jonathan Langberg came to direct the new electrophysiology laboratory at Emory Hospital. In 1993, he and Paul Walter became a superb team and developed a much sought after training program in cardiac electrophysiology. In 1992, Andrew Smith became the director of the heart failure service at Emory Hospital and the Emory Clinic, and Jene Lutz also contributed to that effort. Wendy Book joined the group in 1998 and quickly achieved prominence in the treatment of heart failure. She developed, along with Franch and several pediatricians, a congenital heart disease clinic for adults. Christopher Cates, skilled in using the cardiac catheter to perform angioplasty in the peripheral arteries, joined the faculty at Emory Hospital in 1998.
        Alexander was promoted to professor and chairman of the Department of Medicine in 1999. To fill the job he was leaving, he appointed David Harrison as director of the Division of Cardiology and the Bernard Marcus Professor of Medicine. Harrison is without argument one of the top researchers in the world in vascular biology and an excellent clinician as well.
        The Emory Heart Center was created in 1994, with Doug Morris selected as its director. This new organization, including the Andreas Gruentzig Cardiovascular Center at Emory Hospital, the Carlyle Fraser Heart Center at Emory Crawford Long, and outpatient cardiology at the Emory Clinic, was designed to be the umbrella under which clinical cardiology would thrive, fostering collaboration and coordination among the many aspects of heart disease treatment and diagnosis. Each year since, US News & World Report has ranked the Heart Center in the Top 10 in the nation. In 2003, Emory's program in heart and heart surgery was ranked seventh, the only heart program in Georgia included in the nation's top 50.
        These distinctions are well earned, and the first four years of the new century continued to see growth in every area. Patient care at Emory has become increasingly sophisticated and sought after. The teaching programs for students, house officers, and fellows is increasingly popular, and the research effort has achieved international recognition.
       Taking stock in 2004 was rewarding because the audit of faculty talent, space, and funds assures continued excellence in patient care. Just look at a few examples. At Emory, patients routinely may receive endoscopic cardiac bypass surgery, or hybrid coronary revascularization, or high-tech cardiac resynchronization. Emory patients likewise benefit from an ambitious research agenda with studies ranging from womenís cardiology to basic science. For example, Peter Block, nationally known for his use of balloon dilatation of the mitral valve for mitral stenosis, has recently used the cardiac catheter to treat leakage of the mitral valve. Active research efforts at the VAMC alone include cardiac ischemic preconditioning, stem cell replacement therapy for cardiac injury, mechanical forces and atherosclerotic disease, to just name a few.
        The Sibley Heart Center at Egleston opened in 2002, and 26 pediatric cardiologists contribute to our pediatric cardiology efforts. Eleven of these work at satellite locations throughout Georgia and are members of the staff of 30 hospitals.
        And the solidity of our programs continues at Crawford Long Hospital, where faculty members are using a biventricular pacemaker to treat heart failure.
        Emory can now boast of adequate research space for cardiology in the enlarged Woodruff Research Building on the Emory campus, the Atlanta VAMC, and at Emory Crawford Long. The funding of such a large group of people comes from the money our cardiologists earn by caring for patients at the Emory Clinic or a similar facility, from endowments, and from research grants. The annual research budget from grants awarded to the division of cardiology of the Department of Medicine alone is more than $10 million.
        Our teaching program remains strong. I'll even go so far as to say that the teaching program in cardiology for medical students at Grady Memorial Hospital is one of the best in the nation. In addition, all categorical interns and residents in general internal medicine rotate through the cardiology service at Emory Hospital, and the Emory cardiac fellowship program is one of the largest programs in the country. A large number of cardiac fellows leave Emory to populate the hospitals of Atlanta and other cities throughout the nation and world. Many of them practice cardiology, and a significant number joins academic research institutions. In fact, Emory has trained 85% of practicing cardiologists and heart surgeons in Georgia.
        From a fledgling effort in the 1915, Emory cardiology has evolved into the Top 10 of the nationís best heart centers. And that is the story.


        I have continued to teach eight to ten sessions in cardiology each week, and I write the remainder of the time.
        Bruce Logue's legacy is assured because the Georgia affiliate of the American Heart Association has created an annual dinner in which the R. Bruce Logue Excellence in Medicine award is given to a worthy physician in the Atlanta area.
        I join Logue, who is enjoying his retirement, for lunch about once a month. We discuss the evolution of Emory cardiology and smile. We remember when, in 1950, the two of us were the only cardiologists in the entire Emory system and there were only two cardiac surgeons. We smile because we both love Emory and look with pleasure and awe at Emory cardiology today.


Emory University Hospital and Emory Clinic

R. Wayne Alexander, Jon Beshai, Peter Block, Wendy M. Book, Christopher U. Cates, Stephen D. Clements, John S. Douglas Jr., Ziyad M.B. Ghazzal, David G. Harrison, Brenda Holt, J. Willis Hurst, Jonathan J. Langberg, Stamatios Lerakis, Jerre F. Lutz, Randolph P. Martin, Gerard McGorisk, Joe Miller, Douglas C. Morris, Arshed Quyyumi, Syed Tanveer Rab, Paul H. Robinson, Andrew L. Smith, Dan Sorescu, Larry Sperling, Paul Walter, William S. Weintraub.

Grady Memorial Hospital
Paul D'Amato, Joel Felner, FIRST NAME Henely, Bobby Kaliwes, Charles Searls, Nanette Wenger

Emory Crawford Long
David DeLurgio, Anna Kalynych, Angel R. Leon, Henry Liberman, Steve Manaukian, Fernando Mera, John D. Merlino, Khusrow Niazi, Randolph Patterson, Steven Sigman, Dan Sorecsu, Byron Williams

Atlanta VAMC
Virgil Brown, Sam Dudley, Michael Fan, Alice Huang, Rebecca R. Johnson, Andro Kacharava, Kenton Mavromatis, W. Robert Taylor, Laura Kimble, A. Maziar Zafari

Cardiac surgery
Edward Po-chung Chen, William A. Cooper, Joseph M. Craver, Joseph M. Forbess, Seth D. Force, Robert A. Guyton, Ellis L. Jones, Kirk R. Kanter, Paul M. Kirshbom, Omar M. Lattouf, Kamal A. Mansour, Daniel L. Miller, John D. Puskas, Panagiotis N. Symbas, Thomas A. Vassiliades, Jr., J. David Vega

Vascular surgery
Joseph Ansley, Elliott Chaikoff, Tom Dodson, Karthek Kasirajan, David Ku, Alan Lausden, Ross Milner, Atef Salam, Robert Smith

Pediatric cardiology
Robert Campbell, Gordon Borkat, Martha L. Clabby, Angel R. Cuadrado, Nancy R. Doelling, Kenneth J. Dooley, Patricio A. Frias, Derek A. Fyfe, Michelle Grenier, William L. Ham, Gregory L. Johnson, Dennis W. Kim, William T. Mahle, Michael E. McConnell, Willie J. Parks, Dara A. Rastegar, Anthony A. Raviele, Denver Sallee, Janet Marie Simsic, Nanci R. Stauffer, John K. Stevens, Jr., Margaret L. Strieper, James L. Sutherland, Jane L. Sutherland, Jane L. Todd, Robert N. Vincent


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